Courtenay Middle School
David A. Kolb's: Learning Styles summarized Kolb's Learning Styles as follows:

Divergers (Concrete experiencer/Reflective observer)
Divergers take experiences and think deeply about them, thus diverging from a single experience to multiple possibilities in terms of what this might mean. They like to ask 'why', and will start from detail to constructively work up to the big picture. They enjoy participating and working with others but they like a calm ship and fret over conflicts. They are generally influenced by other people and like to receive constructive feedback. They like to learn via logical instruction or hands-one exploration with conversations that lead to discovery.

Convergers (Abstract conceptualization/Active experimenter)
Convergers think about things and then try out their ideas to see if they work in practice. They like to ask 'how' about a situation, understanding how things work in practice. They like facts and will seek to make things efficient by making small and careful changes. They prefer to work by themselves, thinking carefully and acting independently. They learn through interaction and computer-based learning is more effective with them than other methods.

Accomodators (Concrete experiencer/Active experimenter)
Accommodators have the most hands-on approach, with a strong preference for doing rather than thinking. They like to ask 'what if?' and 'why not?' to support their action-first approach. They do not like routine and will take creative risks to see what happens. They like to explore complexity by direct interaction and learn better by themselves than with other people. As might be expected, they like hands-on and practical learning rather than lectures.

Assimilators (Abstract conceptualizer/Reflective observer)
Assimilators have the most cognitive approach, preferring to think than to act. The ask 'What is there I can know?' and like organized and structured understanding. They prefer lectures for learning, with demonstrations where possible, and will respect the knowledge of experts. They will also learn through conversation that takes a logical and thoughtful approach. They often have a strong control need and prefer the clean and simple predictability of internal models to external messiness. The best way to teach an assimilator is with lectures that start from high-level concepts and work down to the detail. Give them reading material, especially academic stuff and they'll gobble it down. Do not teach through play with them as they like to stay serious.

Retrieved and edited (for spacing) July 2006 from

Model's of Learning Styles (Indiana State University, USA) David A. Kolb on Experiential Learning (Encyclopedia of Informal Education)
"Funderstanding" Learning Styles Overview of different Learning Styles (
Kolb in a visual form: pdf file E-Learning Styles (
Kolb's Learning Styles (University of Vermont) Timeline of Intructional Developments
AskEric "Learning Styles"
Google Scholar "Learning Styles"

Summary created by Stew Savard March 2004. Updated July 2006. Feel free to contact me if you have suggestions, questions, or concerns.